Information and Technology Literacy

Overview of Information and Technology Literacy

Definition
Information and Technology Literacy is the ability of an individual, working independently or with others, to use tools, resources, processes, and systems responsibly to access and evaluate information in any medium, and to use
that information to solve problems, communicate clearly, make informed decisions, and construct new knowledge, products, or systems.
Background
Today’s society is witnessing an unprecedented explosion of information and knowledge. In an environment where information is doubling every three to five years and technology is providing increased access to previously restricted or unknown information sources, students face both difficult challenges and unlimited
opportunities. The successful students, workers, and citizens of tomorrow will be self-directed, lifelong learners.
Wisconsin’s Model Academic Standards for Information and Technology Literacy identifies and defines the knowledge and skills essential for all Wisconsin students to access, evaluate, and use information and technology. These standards connect and interrelate current perspectives in information literacy, media literacy,
and technology literacy into a unified conceptual framework. This framework demonstrates a progression from the physical access skills for the use of media and technology, to the intellectual access skills of information use, to skills and attitudes for learning independently, and finally to the skills needed for working responsibly and productively within groups.
Integration

Image result for technology and information literacy
The purpose of these standards is to identify information and technology content and performance standards for all students throughout the pre-kindergarten to grade twelve (PK-12) curriculum. The standards are designed to be integrated into the various content and skill areas of the school curriculum. The focus is on learning with information and technology rather than learning about information and technology. This integration will be varied and diverse based on the curricula of individual schools and school systems. The task force hopes that much reflective dialogue will occur in school districts among administrators, curriculum directors, library media specialists, technology coordinators, teachers, parents, and community members as each district adopts or modifies these standards and integrates them into the local instructional program for students.
The focus is on a sequential and broad set of information and technology content and performance standards that are necessary for full development of skills for “learning how to learn” addressed in the core areas of the PK-12 curriculum. The task force recognizes that some of these standards are included in other
academic standards and believes this inclusion underscores the importance of information and technology literacy skills by providing entry points for integrating them into a variety of curricular areas. The task force also recognizes that elective programs or advanced courses that are not a part of the curriculum required
for all students may require additional or very specific technology skills beyond those listed in these standards.
Finally, it is important to recognize that accomplishing many of the performance standards listed here will require access to technology by individual students or student workgroups. The task force believes these standards can be achieved with a strong district commitment to a technological infrastructure including
sufficient equipment, materials and staffing; appropriate technical support; and a comprehensive, ongoing program of teacher training and staff development. Organization

The information and technology literacy standards are grouped into four categories or content standards specifying what a student should know and be able to do. The first two content standards focus on technology use and information processing skills. The latter two build upon these by adding performancestandards that deal with attitudes, appreciation, independent learning, teamwork skills, and personal and social responsibility. The four content standards are:
A. Media and Technology—Students in Wisconsin will select and use media and technology to access,organize, create, and communicate information for solving problems and constructing new knowledge,products, and systems.
B. Information and Inquiry—Students in Wisconsin will access, evaluate, and apply information efficiently and effectively from a variety of sources in print, nonprint, and electronic formats to meet personal and academic needs.
C. Independent Learning—Students in Wisconsin will apply technological and information skills toissues of personal and academic interest by actively and independently seeking information;demonstrating critical and discriminating reading, listening, and viewing habits; and, striving for personal excellence in learning and career pursuits.
D. The Learning Community—Students in Wisconsin will demonstrate the ability to work collaboratively in teams or groups, use information and technology in a responsible manner, respect intellectual property rights, and recognize the importance of intellectual freedom and access to information in a
democratic society.
Each content standard is followed by performance standards that tell how students will show that they aremeeting the content standard. Each performance standard includes a number of indicators that detail how students will demonstrate proficiency in a particular performance area. When students demonstrate proficiency in these performance standards and indicators, they will have mastered a literacy that is basic to success in the world of the 21st century.
In this document the term “media” refers to a wide range of formats including print, nonprint, and electronic.
The term “information” reflects narrative, factual, and creative expressions in any of these formats. “Technology” refers to the application of knowledge, tools, and skills to solve practical problems and extend human capabilities. Though technology is often described as process, it is more commonly known by its products and tools and their effects on society. An extensive glossary is included in this document so
the reader can find definitions of terminology used in these standards.
WI

Source :

https://dpi.wi.gov/sites/default/files/imce/imt/pdf/infotech.pdf

 

Continue reading

Advertisements

Google Tricks That Will Change the Way You Search

By Jack Linshi Feb. 3, 2016

Google Search’s learning curve is an odd one. You use it every day, but still all you know is how to search. But the search engine has plenty of tricks up its sleeve.

Here’s an overview of some of the most useful Google search tricks, from basic tips to new features just recently released.

1. Use quotes to search for an exact phrase
This one’s a well-known, simple trick: searching a phrase in quotes will yield only pages with the same words in the same order as what’s in the quotes. It’s one of the most vital search tips, especially useful if you’re trying to find results containing a specific a phrase.

Subscribe to the Motto newsletter for advice worth sharing.

2. Use an asterisk within quotes to specify unknown or variable words
Here’s a lesser known trick: searching a phrase in quotes with an asterisk replacing a word will search all variations of that phrase. It’s helpful if you’re trying to determine a song from its lyrics, but you couldn’t make out the entire phrase (e.g. “imagine all the * living for today”), or if you’re trying to find all forms of an expression (e.g. “* is thicker than water”).

3. Use the minus sign to eliminate results containing certain words
You’ll want to eliminate results with certain words if you’re trying to search for a term that’s generating a lot of results that aren’t of interest to you. Figure out what terms you’re not interested in (e.g. jaguar -car) and re-run the search.

4. Search websites for keywords
Think of the “site:” function as a Google search that searches only a particular website. If you want to see every time TIME.com mentioned Google, use the search “Google site:TIME.com”.

5. Search news archives going back to the mid-1880s
Google News has an option to search over 100 years’ worth of archived news from newspapers around the world.

6. Compare foods using “vs”
Can’t decide between a burger or pizza for dinner? Type in “rice vs. quinoa,” for example, and you’ll receive side-by-side comparisons of the nutritional facts.

Google Search Tips Tricks
COURTESY OF GOOGLE

7. Filter search results for recipes
If you search your favorite food, and then click “Search Tools” right under the search bar, you’ll be able to filter recipes based on ingredients, cook time and calories. It’s the perfect tool if you have certain dietary restrictions.

8. Use “DEFINE:” to learn the meaning of words—slang included
Streamline the dictionary process by using, for example, “DEFINE: mortgage.” For words that appear in the dictionary, you’ll be able to see etymology and a graph of its use over time alongside the definition. Google will even sift the web to define slang words or acronyms. Try out “DEFINE: bae” or “DEFINE: SMH”.

9. Tilt your screen by searching “tilt”
This is one of the fun additions built in by Google engineers. Try it out yourself (search without quotes).

10. Play Atari Breakout by searching it on Google Images
The legendary brick breaker game is available for easy access on Google. Just search “Atari Breakout” (without quotes) on Google Images and enjoy.

11. Search images using images
Ever come across a photo that looks strangely familiar? Or if you want to know where it came from? If you save the image, and then search it on Google Images (with the camera button), you’ll be able to see similar images on the web.

TIME.com: 10 Tech Resolutions to Consider in the New Year

12. Press the mic icon on Google’s search bar, and say “flip a coin” or “heads or tails”
The feature released last month lets Google flip a coin for you when you don’t have one on hand.

COURTESY OF GOOGLE

13. Press the mic icon on Google’s search bar, and say “give me a love quote” or “I love you”
The love quote generator is also a feature released last month for those in need of a little romance.

SOURCE : http://motto.time.com/4116259/google-search/

Sejarah dan Perkembangan Komputer di Indonesia

Komputer sebagai alat bantu untuk menyimpan, mengolah dan mengambil data atau informasi memiliki peranan penting dalam kemajuan teknologi di Indonesia.Kemudahan yang ditawarkan oleh komputer untuk mendapatkan informasi atau hanya sekedar media hiburan tentunya menjadi alasan mengapa komputer terus berkembang.
Pada tahun 1967 diperkirakan sebagai awal masuknya komputer ke Indonesia yang hingga saat ini menjadi bagian dari kehidupan masyarakat Indonesia. Dahulu komputer hanya digunakan sebagai alat untuk berbagi informasi saja dan belum menjadi barang umum di Indonesia karena dari segi harga dan kegunaan masih dirasa kurang diperlukan. Seiring dengan perkembangan teknologi, komputer pun memiliki berbagai fungsi yang digunakan untuk mempermudah kehidupan manusia. Bahkan saat ini komputer sudah menjadi barang umum dikalangan masyarakat. Untuk memahami lebih jauh bagaimana sejarah dan perkembangan komputer di Indonesia mari kita uraikan tahapan penting perjalanan komputer dari tahun ke tahun.

Sejarah dan Perkembangan Komputer Tahun 60an

Komputer masuk ke Indonesia secara resmi tahun 1967 dari luar negeri atas ijin dari pemerintah.Komputer pada saat itu merupakan “barang mahal” maka hanya pihak tertentu saja yang bisa memilikinya. Hanya intansi pemerintah dan industri besar saja yang mampu memiliki dan mengoperasikan komputer saat itu. Namun seiring berjalannya waktu kehadiran komputer dapat diterima di masyarakat.
Pemerintah Indonesia membentuk tim khusus yang dikenal dengan nama BAKOTAN (Badan Koordinasi Otomatisasi Administrasi Negara) pada 4 Juli 1969 karena makin besarnya permintaan konsumen akan perangkat komputer. BAKOTAN berfungsi sebagai konsultan bagi instansi-instansi yang akan membeli atau menyewa peralatan komputer. Pengguna komputer yang masih awam bisa mendapatkan informasi yang jelas terkait penggunaan komputer yang masih menjadi barang asing pada masa itu dari BAKOTAN. Keberadaan BAKOTAN saat itu sangat penting dan ikut ambil bagian dalam sejarah perkembangan komputer di Indonesia.
Pengetahuan akan komputer dinilai cukup penting, namun pada saat itu para ahli dan teknisi yang memahami komputer masih sedikit. Oleh karena itu, pada tahun 1972 Universitas Indonesia (UI) menjadi pelopor yang membuka Pusat Ilmu Komputer (PUSILKOM), sebagai suatu wadah bagi mahasiswa yang ingin mempelajari dan memahami ilmu komputer. Indro S. Suwandi PhD merupakan orang yang berjasa dalam pembentukan jurusan teknologi informasi di UI dan dikenal sebagai tokoh yang memperkenalkan komputer dikalangan perguruan tinggi. Komputer yang saat itu merupakan barang asing, menjadikan jurusan komputer saat itu sebagai pendidikan kelas elit. Namun lambat laun jurusan komputer menjadi bidang yang paling diburu karena semakin terbukanya pikiran masyarakat akan pentingnya komputer.

Sejarah dan Perkembangan Komputer Tahun 80an

Komputer di Indonesia semakin berkembang dengan diadakannya Konferensi komputer region Asia tenggara SEARCC’80 (South East Asia Regional Computer Conference 1980), yang digelar pada tanggal 21 hingga 24 Oktober 1980 di Jakarta. Negara-negara ASEAN menjadikan konferensi tersebut sebagai wadah untuk membahas perkembangan komputer. Indonesia pun menggelar sebuah pameran pada acara tersebut untuk memperkenalkan beragam peralatan komputer yang dipasarkan di Indonesia. Beberapa nama produsen besar sudah mulai menjadikan Indonesia sebagai target penjualan komputer yang mereka produksi, seperti HP (Hewlett Packard), DEC (Digital Equipment Corp.), Prime, DG (Data General), Honeywell Bull, dan beberapa produsen lainnya.
Perkembangan komputer pada masa ini diisi dengan hadirnya komputer mini yang memiliki tingkat kerumitan cukup tinggi dalam hal penggunaan. Komputer mini kurang efektif karena menggunakan sistem operasi tersendiri yang tidak cocok dengan sistem operasi dari sistem lain. Maka program yang dikembangkan pada komputer mini belum tentu bisa dijalankan pada sistem operasi lain. Masalah tersebut pun akhirnya bisa teratasi dengan dengan kemunculan sistem operasi yang kala itu cukup populer, yaitu UNIX. Sistem operasi UNIX dapat dijalankan diberbagai jenis komputer. Sistem operasi UNIX di Indonesia mendapat banyak perhatian dari kalangan pakar komputer. Pada tahun 1983 mahasiswa UI berhasilkan menciptakan sistem operasi UNIX buatan mereka sendiri yang dikenal dengan nama INDOGTW atau Indonesian Gateway. Sistem operasi UNIX kian populer sehingga dibuatlah suatu wadah untuk para pengguna dan penggemar UNIX di Indonesia untuk berbagi pengetahuan yang diberi nama Kelompok Pengguna Unix (Unix Users Group) alias INDONIX. Didik Partono Rudiarto, merupakan penggagas dari perkumpulan tersebut dan secara rutin mengadakan pertemuan untuk membahas seputar UNIX dan komputer mini.
Pada masa ini penelitian tentang komputer terus dilakukan, tidak hanya dari sistem operasi saja, penelitian seputar jaringan komputer pun terus dilakukan. Pada era ini pun kehadiran Personal Computer(PC) sebenarnya sudah ada. Namun karena masih sangat terbatas dari segi kemampuan dan keberadaanya, PC masih dibilang sebagai barang “langka” dan “mewah” di Indonesia.

Sejarah dan Perkembangan Komputer Tahun 90an

Pada era ini sistem operasi baru terus bermunculan di Indonesia. Komputer pun semakin canggih dan semakin banyak diminati, namun masih dikategorikan sebagai “barang mahal”. Indonesia pada era ini mulai mengenal komputer-komputer yang menganut prosesor mikro x86 buatan Intel Corporation, Pentium. Kala itu salah satu komputer besutan Intel yang cukup populer adalah Pentium II.
Komputer jenis ini sangat umum ditemukan mulai dari perkantoran, sekolah-sekolah, hingga perumahan. Komputer jenis ini begitu digandrungi oleh masyarakat kala itu, karena efektifitas dan tingkat efisiensi yang dihasilkannya sebagai alat bantuan dalam bekerja. Bahkan kehadiran komputer Pentium II secara tidak langsung mulai menggeser fenomena penggunaan mesin tik, sebuah alat pegetikan konvensional yang lebih daulu populer dibandingkan komputer.
Pada masa ini internet mulai masuk dan memberikan dampak yang besar terhadap perkembangan komputer di Indonesia. Berbagai industri pun memanfaatkan pulang tersebut sebagai ladang bisnis mereka yang sekaligus ikut serta dalam perkembangan komputer di Indonesia.

Sejarah dan Perkembangan Komputer Tahun 2000an

Sejarah komputer Indonesia terus berlanjut, pada masa ini komputer masuk ke Indonesia lebih cepat, lebih efisien dan tentunya lebih canggih dari segi penggunaan maupun sistem operasinya. Komputer yang cukup populer di Indonesia pada saat era 2000-an ini adalah generasi Pentium III, yang telah menerapkan stand CPU atau lebih dikenal dengan sebutan ‘CPU berdiri’. Menggunakan memory RAM jenis SDRAM dengan spesifikasi 64 MB hingga 256 MB, komputer jenis ini memiliki kecepatan antara 800 Mhz-1300 Mhz.
Pada awal tahun 2000-an sistem operasi Windows merupakan yang paling umum digunakan. Kemudahan yang ditawarkan menjadi salah satu alasannya. Salah satu sistem operasi keluaran windows yang cukup melegenda di Indonesia kala itu adalah windows 98. Sering perkembangannya keluarlah komputer pentium IV, yang cukup populer karena memiliki processor canggih dan dapat diandalkan untuk bermain games karena memiliki desain grafis yang cukup tinggi.
Setelah cukup lama dibuai dengan komputer hasil olahan Intel, berikutnya Indonesia juga kedatangan AMD lewat beberapa produknya seperti AMD Sempron, AMD Athlon, AMD Turion dan lain-lain. Persaingan yang terjadi antara Intel dan AMD terbilang sangat ketat, meskipun sejatinya produk dari kedua perusahaan tersebut memiliki target spesifik pasar yang agak sedikit bebeda.
Komputer terus berkembangan dari masa ke masa bahkan perkembangannya tergolong cepat. Pada akhirnya keempat era yang dijelaskan di atas telah menjadi kenangan semata sebagai sejarah perkembangan komputer yang terjadi di Indonesia. Saat ini kita sudah berada di era yang lebih maju dan banyak diisi oleh kemungkinan baru yang akan terjadi nantinya. Bahkan era yang kita jalani saat ini nantinya akan menjadi sejarah untuk generasi berikutnya. Semoga di era yang semakin berkembang ini menjadi bagian sejarah komputer di Indonesia yang layak untuk dibanggakan.

Sumber : http://teknodaily.com/
http://www.teknologiinformasidankomunikasi.com/

LITERASI TIK

Literasi TIK adalah kemampuan menggunakan teknologi digital, alat komunikasi dan atau jaringan untuk Mendefinisikan (Define), Mengakses (Access), Mengelola (Manage), Mengintegrasikan (Integrate), Mengevaluasi (Evaluate), Menciptakan (Create), dan Mengkomunikasikan (Communicate) informasi secara baik dan legal dalam rangka membangun masyarakat berpengetahuan.

ketujuh aspek ini sangat penting dalam Literasi TIK dan saling berkaitan satu sama lain. Penjelasan masing-masing aspek akan dipaparkan sebagai berikut:

  • Define : menggunakan digital tools untuk mengidentifikasi dan menggambarkan kebutuhan informasi (identifikasi topik atau permasalahan yang dihadapi)
  • Access : mengetahui cara dan lokasi untuk mengumpulkan dan mendapatkan informasi dalam ruang lingkup digital
  • Manage : mengorganisir, mengklasifikasikan, memilah milih informasi yang ada menggunakan digital tools
  • Integrate : menafsirkan dan menggambarkan informasi yang didapatkan dengan menggunakan digital tools untuk menyatukan, meringkas, membandingkan informasi dari berbagai sumber
  • Evaluate : meninjau lebih jauh atau menilai sejauh mana informasi yang ada memenuhi kebutuhan dari topik atau permasalahan yang dihadapi
  • Create : mengadaptasi, menerapkan, merancang, membangun informasi
  • Communicate : menyebarluaskan atau menyampaikan informasi yang didapatkan terkait topik atau permasalahan yang dihadapi ke pihak luar/audiens tertentu.

Sekarang tentu kita sudah lebih paham tentang Literasi TIK, mari sekarang kita membahas apa saja kelebihan dan kekurangan Literasi TIK sebenarnya.

 

d

Kelebihan Literasi TIK di 8 bidang, yaitu tertera pada gambar. Adapun penjelasan serta contoh kelebihan Literasi TIK akan dipaparkan lebih lanjut sebagi berikut:

  • Sosial : membantu/mempermudah dalam berkomunikasi dengan kerabat dan keluarga tanpa terbatas ruang dan waktu, sehingga tidak harus bertemu dan bertatap muka langsung
  • Pendidikan : membantu proses belajar, dimana segala informasi yang terkait dengan pendidikan dapat diakses dengan lebih mudah dan cepat
  • Hiburan : menawarkan konten hiburan (game, film, video, musik) yang dapat menghilangkan kejenuhan, serta dapat mengasah atau membentuk pola fikir
  • Ekonomi : mempermudah dalam menjalankan aktifitas perekonomian, seperti transaksi perbankan, perdagangan, proses administrasi
  • Pemerintahan : mempermudah menyampaikan kebijakan program atau regulasi yang berlaku dan memberikan keterbukaan kepada masyarakat untuk memberikan pendapat
  • Politik : mendorong timbulnya proses demokrasi, melancarkan proses pemilu, kampanye, hubungan diplomatik
  • Hukum : keterbukaan informasi terkait undang-undang dan pelayanan publik, membantu menangkap pelaku kejahatan (pengecekan IP, penyadapan, tracking history, dll)

S.png

  1. adanya kontrol konten yang terkadang membuat beberapa konten tidak bisa dikonsumsi sebagaimana mestinya.
  2. Ancaman keamanan adalah juga kekurangan Literasi TIK karena kecanggihan dan kemudahan yang ditawarkan akan memberikan sedikit keleluasaan bagi sebagian orang yang jail dan tidak bertanggung jawab, mereka akan mudah untuk melakukan hal yang tidak terduga seperti hacker, penyadapan dll.
  3. Terakhir adalah kebebasan bereskpresi yang terbatas karena ruang teknologi digitak terkadang tidak bisa mendukung semua bidang ekspresi manusia, itu yang membuat kebebasan berekspresi menjadi kekurangan.

Peran ICT dalam pembangunan

  1. Mengurangi pengangguran
  2. Membantu kerangka kerja dengan (national Information technology framework)
  3. Strategi ICT mengurangi kemiskinan
  4. Implementasi strategi yang memanfaatkan pendekatan desentralisasi pengalihan peran dan tanggung jawab pemerintah pusat ke daerah

Dengan catatan

  1.  Jika berdiri sendiri ICT tidak dapat berperan optimal karena infrastuktur lemah
  2. ICT paling tepat dimanfaaatkan untuk menyempurnakan proses berjalan cukup baik
  3. pengunaan ICT sudah akrab dengan ICT
  4. Penerapan efektif ICT melibatkan infrastruktur teknologi / informasi
  5. Di desa negara berkembang ICT masih belum merata

 

Perbedaan data dan Informasi

Image result for perbedaan data dan informasi

Image result for perbedaan data dan informasi

SEJARAH INTERNET

Image result for sejarah internet di dunia

Di tahun 1972, ARPANET bisa terkoneksi secara international, hal ini dimulai dari Royal Establishment di Norwegia dan juga University College of London. Pada tahun 1978, Laboratorium Bell menemukan Unix to copy Protocol. Alat ini digunakan untuk mengstransfer data atau file. Dan protocol baru bisa dicetak pada tahun 1982 dengan nama IP yang digunakan untuk ARPANET. Setelah itu, barulah internet didefinisikan sebagai kumpulan jaringan yang bisa terhubung melalui IP yang digunakan sebagai protocol. Internet semakin berkembang dari waktu ke waktu hingga pada tahun 1983 dikembangkanlah DNS atau Domain Name System oleh John Postel, Craig Partidge dan juga Paul Mockapetris. Ketiganya telah mengembangkan DNS yang sekarang sering kita manfaatkan.

DNS yang dikembangkan Postel dan kawan-kawannya tersebut bertujuan untuk pengamatan sistem dalam bentuk user@host.cdomain. Dan setahun kemudian yaitu tahun 1984, ada beberapa jenis domain yang diperkenalkan di dunia maya diantaranya adalah .net, .com, .gov, .mil, dan .org. Selain perkembangan internet yang cukup pesat, saat itu keberadaan PC juga semakin banyak digunakan masyarakat. Dan pada tahun 80’an, ARPANET memiliki sekitar 200 host yanng terhubung untuk membantu masyarakat. Era tersebut juga membuat BITNES memiliki layanan lain yang hingga kini masih diminati masyarakat diantaranya adalah e-mail, FTP (File Transfer Protocol) dan juga mailing list. Internet mengalami perkembangan yang cukup pesat sekitar tahun 2000. Pada tahun tersebut banyak situs yang bermunculan dan jumlahnya sunggu fantastis.Ada milyaran situs di dunia maya demikian juga banyak sekali bisnis yang memanfaatkan internet yang sekarang ini kita kenal dengan nama bisnis online. Dengan adanya internet, kita memang bisa melalukan semua dengan mudah

 

 

source : http://www.pricebook.co.id/forumdetail/news/5171/cid-112_sid-26183

https://chittamahayanti.wordpress.com/tag/kelebihan-dan-kekurangan-literasi-tik/

 

5 Steps to Build a Business on a Budget

,

Some people say you need money to start a business. Others think it’s down to who you know, what you studied, timing or just the economy. I believe it’s mostly up to you. Right now you could be employed, retrenched, retired or a student- you have the means and the opportunity to start your own company at this very minute. No matter whom you are and the life you lead, I don’t only just believe you could be an entrepreneur. I know you can be one.

Do you want to be self employed, to become the architect of your own work life? If the answer is a resounding yes, you’re already halfway there. I’m not saying the road ahead is easy or won’t be without struggle. Often the hardest step in life is making a real commitment to follow your heart.

So where and perhaps more importantly how do you start once you do?

1) Be passionate

I believe any skill, experience or hobby can be monetized. I’m not just referring to what you may have learned in college or during employment. I literally mean anything you can do can potentially earn you an income. What distinguishes the truly successful however often boils down to simple passion. It doesn’t matter if it’s a skill from childhood or a niche hobby you’ve decided to base your business model on – success is mostly determined by liberal amounts of “sweat and hard” work. It’s why passion is so essential: It sustains us through the hard times, and rewards in ways money never can.

2) Be present online

Once you know your business concept, establishing your presence online is pretty much crucial. These days if you can browse the web, you can build a website. Construct a free website on sites like Wix if you’re new to website design. If you’re focus is retail, it’s easy to get listed in everything from Craigslist toGoogle. Take a minute to establish yourself on a reputableservices marketplace. The key takeaway here is to just get your vision out there, and then refine as you go along. Creating your online business presence is your dedication to entrepreneurship materializing in front of you. Don’t trivialize that moment but see it for what it is: An affirmation of your commitment for the entire world to take note of.

3) Get discussed

Social media is not only free marketing; it can drive a ton of business. You may already be present on popular platforms likeFacebook and Twitter, but it’s time to build a distinct brand image. The key concepts to building a powerful brand are straightforward but just like your website, your messaging will develop and change as your business model evolves. Just be yourself and realize that online social relationships take time to mature and yield reward- so the earlier you start the better.

4) Get connected

Invest some time identifying the influencers who operate in your chosen sector. Register on website forums, connect on LinkedIn and make friends! You already have common interests, so gently reach out and get to know these influential players through mutual online discussions. Attend free conferences or meetups in your area. Build a network and offer the value you have to deliver. Don’t be too selective in the areas you focus on either: It’s never only who you know, but also who your contacts know that can count.

5) Get the app

We live in a vibrant app culture, so why not make the most of it! You don’t need expensive document software or business cards when there’s Google Drive and Bump. Need a free mobile payment system or expense management tool? Square andExpensify are there for you. With services like App Press orAppBreeder, you can even make your an app for your business without knowing how to write a single line of code.

Whatever comes, good or bad, try to remember why you began in the first place: Starting your own business is a commitment, to yourself and your future. Hold tight to your passion! If you’re reading this, the tools and the means to being your own boss is just a little self exploration and a few mouse clicks away.

What are you waiting for? Go. Make your own history.

Do you believe as I do that it’s never been easy to be an Entrepreneur as it is right now? Is there any additional advice you would give some one making the entrepreneurial leap? I would love to hear your thoughts or even better, your experiences!

Stay in touch by following me on Twitter: @MichaKaufman

source : https://www.forbes.com/sites/michakaufman/2013/04/05/how-to-build-a-business-with-zero-savings/#2f096b9372a8

10 Rules To Build A Wildly Successful Business

But wait, because there’s one more thing. In fact, 10 more.

Goldman and Nalebuff share 10 must-follow rules on how to start and build an equally impressive empire (you can find these rules in the back of their book; Mission In A Bottle):

1. “Build something you believe in — because that’s the first step to building a great brand.”

Just like Goldman and Nalebuff, I learned a powerful lesson in tenacious passion from 30 plus years of entrepreneurship. When you’re all alone, sitting in a dark room wondering why your business is failing, there is only one true thing to power you forward — you believe in your purpose.

2. “Don’t aim for 10% improvement. Make it radically better and different.”

Yes — in today’s society we collectively create amazing products, services and companies through entrepreneurship. World changing at times and Honest Tea was radically different when first introduced. But, if you look around, we also live in the land of ‘me-too’ businesses. Don’t fall for it. Dig deep and decide right now to build something radically different and radically better.

3. “Prepare to be copied. Don’t start unless you’ll survive imitation.”

If your idea is truly radical and takes off, you can count the minutes before the copy-cats arrive. How will you survive competition from the big 800-pound gorillas on the block? Or even from the upstart little guys? Your key is a system of ‘continuous innovation’. Although you could also take the road of Honest Tea — make friends with one of the gorillas and let them buy you out. (Coca-Cola Company acquired Honest Tea in 2011.)

4. “Build up reserves of money and energy for bad luck and mistakes.”

Great advice — but sometimes extremely difficult to do. What startup or growth company has reserves of cash sitting around? But Goldman and Nalebuff make a good point — run as lean as you possibly can and do not waste money or energy. You will endure mistakes and bad luck along the way, so having a good war chest full of capital and energy can help handle it.

5. “Never, ever give up control — until you sell.”

Some high-impact entrepreneurs will readily give up control in exchange for the lure of high-growth through venture capital — but I am not one of them. Relinquish control and you risk losing the culture and vision of the company you set out to build. Even though Honest Tea raised investment capital from the beginning, the co-founders always remained in the driver’s seat. (And yes — Goldman can still drive his vision as CEO of Honest Tea, but his boss at Coca-Cola can say ‘no’ at anytime. Thus, true control is forever gone.)

6. “Don’t compromise on the big things — compromise on everything else.”

Vision. Purpose. Core values. Write these things in stone and never budge. But flexibility in the value propositions, products and services you build to execute your purpose is vastly important. Many entrepreneurs I see fail to ‘bend to the market’ by adapting to what their customer’s are telling them.

7. “Figure out how to achieve your goals on a tiny budget — then cut that number in half.”

Yes — you’ve heard it said before — it will cost twice as much, and take twice as long as you think. My recommendation is you apply the principles of lean to your business from day one. No fancy offices. No fancy full color brochures. Your goal is to stay alive until you can nail your secret formula for success. Blowing the budget will insure nothing but a quick death.

8. “It’s a marathon, not a sprint.”

Is it ever. Building a business is neither for the faint of heart or the speed demon. Climbing Mt. Everest is not done in 3 easy steps: 1.) decide you want to do it, 2.) fly to Nepal with zero preparation, 3.) sprint straight up the mountain in 12 easy minutes. Build systems for the long-haul and focus on small-connected steps. (It takes 26,364 steps of 7″ each to climb Mt. Everest, and that’s starting from half way up at Basecamp.)

9. “Take care of your family, personal and spiritual health — if you aren’t laughing or smiling on a regular basis, recalibrate.”

Imagine the path to a wildly successful business: founder working at a feverish pitch for 18 hours each day, for at least 5 years straight. True? No, it’s not. In my private conversation with Goldman, he flat-out told me two reasons he made it through the rough years: first — he believed in his purpose, second — his drive for personal balance. The notion we need to kill our family relationships, personal health or level of sanity to build our own business is sadly misaligned. Take it from me — don’t go there.

10. “Build the enterprise and the brand as if you’ll own them forever.”

Will you sell your business someday? Maybe. Should that be the sole reason you are building it? Probably not. When you start and build a business based on passion and purpose, with a burning desire to solve the pain of your customer through the deliverance of monetizable value, you build a far more valuable enterprise. Those in it for the short-term quick buck rarely succeed.

Plaster these 10 rules from Goldman and Nalebuff to your mirror, live by them everyday of your life as an entrepreneur and you might end up as successful as they. Honest.

Source : https://www.forbes.com/sites/ericwagner/2014/01/14/10-rules-to-build-a-wildly-successful-business/#7e0af091b96e

26 Delicious Korean Foods You Need In Your Life

26 Delicious Korean Foods You Need In Your Life

There’s more to it than Korean BBQ.

Alice Mongkongllite / BuzzFeed

1. Galbi

What is it? Marinated short ribsGalbi is how most people come to know Korean food (other than through Kimchi). The pear-soy marinade it's slathered with is super sweet, slightly salty, and always addictive. Recipe here.

stu_spivack / Via Flickr: stuart_spivack

What is it? Marinated short ribs

Galbi is how most people come to know Korean food (other than through Kimchi). The pear-soy marinade it’s slathered with is super sweet, slightly salty, and always addictive. Recipe here.

2. Yukgaejang

What is it? Spicy shredded beef stewDon't worry, yukgaejang is not as spicy as its scary red color might suggest. In fact, it's considered a comfort food and is a staple dish in every Korean home. Recipe here.

koreanbapsang.com

What is it? Spicy shredded beef stew

Don’t worry, yukgaejang is not as spicy as its scary red color might suggest. In fact, it’s considered a comfort food and is a staple dish in every Korean home. Recipe here.

3. Jjajangmyeon

What is it? Noodles in black bean sauceChewy noodles and greasy black sauce are a match made in noodle heaven. In fact, though Chinese in origin, this dish is the most popular takeout item in Korea, and as loved among Koreans as kimchi. Recipe here.

bearnakedfood.com

What is it? Noodles in black bean sauce

Chewy noodles and greasy black sauce are a match made in noodle heaven. In fact, though Chinese in origin, this dish is the most popular takeout item in Korea, and as loved among Koreans as kimchi. Recipe here.

4. Soondubu Stew

What is it? A stew made with extra soft tofu cubes. Think of this as the Korean version of late night pizza. Filled with either beef, pork, seafood, or kimchi, as well as tender tofu, this spicy dish is a go-to order to after a night of heavy drinking. Recipe here.

koreanbapsang.com

What is it? A stew made with extra soft tofu cubes.

Think of this as the Korean version of late night pizza. Filled with either beef, pork, seafood, or kimchi, as well as tender tofu, this spicy dish is a go-to order to after a night of heavy drinking. Recipe here.

5. Gim

What is it? Toasted salted seaweed.You'll find a basket of salted seaweed in every Korean household. It's a staple side dish, but also makes a great snack and meal on-the-go when paired with rice. Recipe here.

Luknaja / Getty Images / Via gettyimages.com

What is it? Toasted salted seaweed.

You’ll find a basket of salted seaweed in every Korean household. It’s a staple side dish, but also makes a great snack and meal on-the-go when paired with rice. Recipehere.

6. Bibim Naengmyeon

What is it? Cold, spicy noodles with slices of cucumber and pear.Beware of the noodles: they're extra long and a known choking hazard! Recipe here.

Lionet80 / Getty Images / Via gettyimages.com

What is it? Cold, spicy noodles with slices of cucumber and pear.

Beware of the noodles: they’re extra long and a known choking hazard! Recipe here.

7. Makkoli

What is it? Sweet rice wine.Milky and sweet, this wine drink tastes pretty similar to Yakult. Though you can hardly taste the alcohol in it, it's more potent than beer, so indulge with caution.

~Cytryna~ / Via flic.kr

What is it? Sweet rice wine.

Milky and sweet, this wine drink tastes pretty similar to Yakult. Though you can hardly taste the alcohol in it, it’s more potent than beer, so indulge with caution.

8. Bulgogi

What is it? Marinated beef.If you love meat, but also have a sweet tooth, this one's for you. It tastes a lot like galbi, but it's made with a thinner cut of meat. Recipe here.

mykoreankitchen.com

What is it? Marinated beef.

If you love meat, but also have a sweet tooth, this one’s for you. It tastes a lot like galbi, but it’s made with a thinner cut of meat. Recipe here.

9. Doenjang Jjigae

What is it? Fermented bean soup.Okay, I know it's not much to look at, but this umami-rich soup is actually really good. It tastes kind of like miso, but with a few slices of chili pepper and zucchini thrown in for extra savoriness. Recipe here.

kimchimari.com

What is it? Fermented bean soup.

Okay, I know it’s not much to look at, but this umami-rich soup is actually really good. It tastes kind of like miso, but with a few slices of chili pepper and zucchini thrown in for extra savoriness. Recipe here.

10. Seolleongtang

What is it? Creamy ox bone soup.This soup's milky flavor is derived from ox bones boiled over 3+ hours. A pinch of salt and pepper brings out the savory taste. Recipe here.

James / Via Flickr: 40726522@N02

What is it? Creamy ox bone soup.

This soup’s milky flavor is derived from ox bones boiled over 3+ hours. A pinch of salt and pepper brings out the savory taste. Recipe here.

11. Samgyeopsal

What is it? Thick slices of pork belly.Best enjoyed with a large group of friends, along with many bottles of soju and makgeolli. More serving suggestions here.

Hiroshi Aoki / Via Flickr: froschmann-jp

What is it? Thick slices of pork belly.

Best enjoyed with a large group of friends, along with many bottles of soju and makgeolli. More serving suggestions here.

12. Bibimbab

What is it? Rice with beef, vegetables, and red chili paste.Literally translating to "mixed rice," this simple dish will make you want to devour all of your vegetables. It's served with a dollop of chili paste you mix into the dish before eating, and almost always with a sunny-side up egg. Recipe here.

Hakat / Getty Images

What is it? Rice with beef, vegetables, and red chili paste.

Literally translating to “mixed rice,” this simple dish will make you want to devour all of your vegetables. It’s served with a dollop of chili paste you mix into the dish before eating, and almost always with a sunny-side up egg. Recipe here.

13. Kimchi jjigae

What is it? Kimchi stew.This is a great way to use kimchi that's ripened a little too much. Throw in some tofu, or a few slices of spam and sausage, and you've got a meal. Recipe here.

mykoreankitchen.com

What is it? Kimchi stew.

This is a great way to use kimchi that’s ripened a little too much. Throw in some tofu, or a few slices of spam and sausage, and you’ve got a meal. Recipe here.

14. Budae jjigae

What is it? A stew made with kimchi, ramen, slices sausages, spam, tofu, and rice cake.Created after the Korean war to make economic use of American ingredients, this stew has EVERYTHING, including spam (which seems to find its way into a lot of Korean dishes.) Recipe here.

mykoreankitchen.com

What is it? A stew made with kimchi, ramen, slices sausages, spam, tofu, and rice cake.

Created after the Korean war to make economic use of American ingredients, this stew has EVERYTHING, including spam (which seems to find its way into a lot of Korean dishes.) Recipe here.

15. Hotteok

What is it? Sweet, brown sugar-filled pancakes.This treat is best hot off the griddle, when every bite promises a sticky mess and a burnt tongue. It's especially delicious with cinnamon and chopped nuts in the filling. Recipe here.

dramafever.com

What is it? Sweet, brown sugar-filled pancakes.

This treat is best hot off the griddle, when every bite promises a sticky mess and a burnt tongue. It’s especially delicious with cinnamon and chopped nuts in the filling. Recipe here.

16. Gamjatang

What is it? Spicy pork bone stew with potatoes.Pork bones are boiled with green vegetables until the meat is just barely hanging on to the bone — probably why you can eat this entire soup with just a pair of chopsticks. Recipe here.

koreanbapsang.com

What is it? Spicy pork bone stew with potatoes.

Pork bones are boiled with green vegetables until the meat is just barely hanging on to the bone — probably why you can eat this entire soup with just a pair of chopsticks. Recipe here.

17. Tteokbokki

What is it? Spicy rice cake served with fish cake.This is the holy grail of street food. You can often get it with mozzarella melted over the entire platter, with a boiled egg, or with ramen on top. NOM. Recipe here.

Kikira123 / Getty Images / Via gettyimages.com

What is it? Spicy rice cake served with fish cake.

This is the holy grail of street food. You can often get it with mozzarella melted over the entire platter, with a boiled egg, or with ramen on top. NOM. Recipe here.

18. Kimchi

What is it? Spicy, fermented cabbage.This stuff is as essential as bread and butter. It's spicy (duh), crunchy, and kiiiind of salty, and goes well with literally every Korean dish. Recipe here.

Namepic / Getty Images / Via gettyimages.com

What is it? Spicy, fermented cabbage.

This stuff is as essential as bread and butter. It’s spicy (duh), crunchy, and kiiiind of salty, and goes well with literally every Korean dish. Recipe here.

19. Kongguksu

What is it? Cold soy milk noodle soup.Not all comfort foods are hot. This vegetarian-friendly, nutty soup is best served with ice cubes and a few slivers of cucumber. Recipe here.

koreanbapsang.com

What is it? Cold soy milk noodle soup.

Not all comfort foods are hot. This vegetarian-friendly, nutty soup is best served with ice cubes and a few slivers of cucumber. Recipe here.

20. Tteokguk

What is it? Rice cake soup.It's traditionally served on Korean New Year, but also enjoyed throughout the year. Recipe here.

mykoreankitchen.com

What is it? Rice cake soup.

It’s traditionally served on Korean New Year, but also enjoyed throughout the year. Recipe here.

21. Jangjorim

What is it? Soy-drenched beef strips.This is always the first banchan (side dish) to disappear. It's made by boiling beef in a seasoning of sugar, soy sauce, chili peppers, and vegetables until tender, and usually served with hardboiled eggs braised in soy sauce. Recipe here.

koreanbapsang.com

What is it? Soy-drenched beef strips.

This is always the first banchan (side dish) to disappear. It’s made by boiling beef in a seasoning of sugar, soy sauce, chili peppers, and vegetables until tender, and usually served with hardboiled eggs braised in soy sauce. Recipe here.

22. Mandu

What is it? Steamed or fried dumplings.If you've ever tried potstickers, Korean mandu are basically the same thing, but with thinner skin. They're filled with everything from pork to cabbage and carrots. Recipe here.

kimchichick.com

What is it? Steamed or fried dumplings.

If you’ve ever tried potstickers, Korean mandu are basically the same thing, but with thinner skin. They’re filled with everything from pork to cabbage and carrots. Recipehere.

23. Japchae

What is it? Sweet potato noodles stir-fried with vegetables and meat.It's most often served as a side dish, though enough additions of beef, mushrooms, sprouts, and other vegetables could bump it up to main course status. Recipe here.

mykoreankitchen.com / Via Flickr: avlxyz

What is it? Sweet potato noodles stir-fried with vegetables and meat.

It’s most often served as a side dish, though enough additions of beef, mushrooms, sprouts, and other vegetables could bump it up to main course status. Recipe here.

24. Haemul Pajeon

What is it? Fried seafood pancake.These things are like Pringles — you really can't stop at just one bite. Fried, savory, and chewy, they're everything you'd ever want in an appetizer. Recipe here.

mykoreankitchen.com

What is it? Fried seafood pancake.

These things are like Pringles — you really can’t stop at just one bite. Fried, savory, and chewy, they’re everything you’d ever want in an appetizer. Recipe here.

25. Soju

What is it? Rice-based liquor.No KBBQ night is complete without multiple bottles of this smooth, clear liquor.

Graham Hills / Via flic.kr

What is it? Rice-based liquor.

No KBBQ night is complete without multiple bottles of this smooth, clear liquor.

26. Patbingsu

What is it? Shaved ice with sweet red beans.I swear this was created to get kids to eat more fruit. As far as toppings go, it's anything goes, but cubes of watermelon, kiwi, and blueberries, as well as corn flakes and ice cream, are popular additions. All drizzled with sweet condensed milk, of course. Recipe here.

pixabay.com

What is it? Shaved ice with sweet red beans.

I swear this was created to get kids to eat more fruit. As far as toppings go, it’s anything goes, but cubes of watermelon, kiwi, and blueberries, as well as corn flakes and ice cream, are popular additions. All drizzled with sweet condensed milk, of course.

source : https://www.buzzfeed.com/michelleno/foods-every-korean-loves?utm_term=.thlp4a4vd#.bqadnQnoL

여보! (Hello) and Welcome to our Guide to South Korean Culture, Customs, Business Practices & Etiquette

여보! (Hello) and Welcome to our Guide to South Korean Culture, Customs, Business Practices & Etiquette

Taegukki - flag of south korea

In a country where almost half the population have the same last name, you may be forgiven for becoming a little confused about who is who and what is what.

That is why we have published our free guide to South Korea!

Valuable for anyone researching Korean culture, customs, language, society, manners, etiquette, values, business norms and essentially wanting to understand the people better.

Skip to:

TAEGUKKI:SOUTH KOREA’S FLAGThere are four different black trigrams from the ancient I Ching (Book of Changes) in each corner of the white field. White is a traditional Korean colour and represents peace and purity; blue represents the negative cosmic forces of the yin, while the red symbolises the opposite positive forces of the yang; each trigram (kwae) denotes one of the four universal elements, which together express the principle of movement and harmony.

Whether visiting South Korea on business, for tourism or even hosting Korean colleagues or clients in your own country, this guide will help you understand your South Korean counterparts, improve communication and get the relationship off to the right start. How do we know all this information? Well, we are experts in cultural awareness training courses on Korean culture!

FACTS AND STATISTICS

  • Location: Eastern Asia, southern half of the Korean Peninsula bordering the East Sea and the Yellow Sea
  • Capital: Seoul
  • National anthem: Aegukga
  • Nationality: Korean
  • Ethnic Make-up: Homogenous (except for small percentage of the population who are from elsewhere but reside in the country permanently). It is one of the most racially pure countries in the world.
  • Population: 50,924,172 (July 2016 Est.)
  • Population growth rate: 0.53% (2016 Est.)
  • Climate: temperate, with rainfall heavier in summer than winter
  • Time Zone: Korea Standard Time UTC (UTC+09:00)
  • Currency: South Korean ‘won’
  • Government: Republic
  • Internet penetration: 92.1% (2016)

 

LANGUAGE IN SOUTH KOREA

Koreans share one language, with approximately seventy million people around the globe speaking Korean.

The language structure, grammar and vocabulary are similar to Japanese. Dialects are regional; differing mainly in accent, but are so similar that comprehension for speakers, or listeners, is not an issue. Key difference in dialect are also attributed to social status.

Korea has one of the highest literacy rates in the world due to the phonetic nature of the written language which was invented in the mid-fifteenth century to give one language to Koreans.

WARNING! Remember this is only a very basic level introduction to Korean culture and the people; it can not account for the diversity within South Korean society and is not meant in any way to stereotype all Korean people you may meet!

 

Songgwangsa Temple SouthKorea

[Songgwangsa Temple in Suncheon, South Korea]

 

SOUTH KOREAN CULTURE & SOCIETY

Religion & Beliefs

  • South Korea supports religious freedom
  • Confucianism, Buddhism and Christianity are the main formal religions
  • Many Koreans believe in the ancestral spirit and observe Confucian rituals
  • Confucianism is a political and social philosophy that pervades Korean culture

Major Celebrations/Secular Celebrations

  • There are two main national holidays
  • New Year’s Day (second full moon after winter solstice)
  • Chuseok (the eighth full moon)
  • Celebrations for these festivals are based around ancestors, family, games, harvest festivals and food.

The Family

  • The family unit is an integral part of customs and life in South Korea
  • Arranged marriages are common
  • Marriage is regarded as a rite of passage
  • Divorce was rare but has become more common in recent years
  • Patriarchal lineage is ubiquitous and links ancestors through the husband’s line
  • Traditionally, the eldest son inherited, however, this has recently altered and is now equal by law
  • The eldest son bears extra responsibility to his family and it is supposed that he will care for his parents in their old age

Social Stratification

  • Since the Kabo Reforms of 1894 there has been no traditional gentry
  • 60% of Koreans considered themselves to be middle class
  • Class position is often linked to educational attainment
  • Industrialisation and urbanisation contribute to class difference
  • Family, upbringing, wealth, education and occupation contribute to social standing
  • Symbols of status include; large homes, chauffeur driven cars, dress, membership to certain clubs, and higher educational degrees
  • Urbanisation is 82.5% of total population (2015)
  • Language is hierarchical and one must address social superiors in a fitting manner

 Gender Roles

  • Equality of the sexes is constitutional
  • Daily life is dominated by male guidance within a primarily patriarchal society
  • Social organisation is influenced by gender and age
  • 47.7% of adult females worked outside the home (1998)
  • Women occupied 2.3% of provincial and local seats in (1999)
  • Women dominate Shamanism as priestesses but have limited roles within Christian and Buddhist religions
  • Women are expected to be submissive in public situations and at informal gatherings
  • Women are considered more independent than their male counterparts

Socialisation

  • Daily care of infants is primarily parent based for at least the first two years with little, or no, separation from the mother
  • Patriarchal obedience, cooperation, respect for elders, and familial piety are imbued into early childhood
  • Gender specific roles are encouraged within the family and education system
  • Sons generally receive the best education and remain more dependent upon their family, even into marriage

The Economy

  • South Korea changed from an underdeveloped country, to the 11th largest economy globally, within one generation
  • South Korea is heavily dependent upon exports for its GDP; almost half of its business is exported through products or services
  • 48% of all exports are electronic
  • 31% of exports are transport related (cars, boats, etc)

Food

  • Korean cuisine is based on rice, vegetables and meat
  • ‘Kimchi’ is the national dish and is eaten with most meals
  • Kimchi is made from a variety of vegetables which are then fermented and can be stored for long periods of time
  • Banchan are side dishes – these are often made in large numbers and are served along with the main dish
  • Food is used in ceremonies, especially at weddings, birthdays and to honour ancestors

Arts, Humanities & Popular Culture

  • Historically, Chinese and Japanese influences were seen in South Korean art; aesthetic concepts and motifs were shared
  • Korean music and arts were linked to natural cycles and religion, giving rise to a folk culture in rural areas that are still considered popular
  • ‘Gangnam Style’ by Psy, a South Korean musician, achieved worldwide fame in 2012. The song refers to the Gangnam District of Seoul, a trendy, classy area, equated with London, Paris or Hollywood
  • Foreign influences have produced a fast food and coffee culture in recent years, especially within Seoul
  • Language has altered with the introduction of some Western phrases such as ‘eye shopping’ (window shopping)

kimchi content korea

[Ladies at a Kimchi competition in Seoul show off their personal recipes]

 

SOCIAL CUSTOMS & ETIQUETTE TIPS FOR SOUTH KOREA

The Concept of Kibun

  • Kibun is a word with no literal English translation; the closest terms are pride, face, mood, feelings, or state of mind.
  • If you hurt someone’s kibun you hurt their pride, cause them to lose dignity, and lose face. Korean interpersonal relationships operate on the principle of harmony.
  • It is important to maintain a peaceful, comfortable atmosphere at all times, even if it means telling a “white lie”.
  • It is important to know how to judge the state of someone else’s kibun, how to avoid hurting it, and how to keep your own kibun at the same time.
  • In business, a manager’s kibun is damaged if his subordinates do not show proper respect. A subordinate’s kibun is damaged if his manager criticizes him in public.
  • Nunchi is the ability to determine another person’s kibun by using the eye.
  • Since this is a culture where social harmony is crucial, being able to judge another person’s state of mind is critical to maintain the person’s kibun. Nunchi is accomplished by watching body language and listening to the tone of voice as well as what is said.

Naming Conventions

  • In South Korea names operate in the reverse of Western cultures; Family name (surname), a second family name shared by all of that generation, and finally their given name.
  • It is considered very impolite to address a Korean with his or her given name. They should be addressed using their professional titles, or Mr, Mrs Etc, until permission is given otherwise.

Meeting & Greeting

  • Bowing is the traditional way to greet in South Korea
  • Handshakes often accompany the bow among men
  • Your left hand should support your right forearm when shaking hands
  • Korean women do not always shake hands and may slightly nod instead of a full bow
  • Always bow to individuals when departing

Communication style

  • Communication can be complicated in South Korea due to an inherent dislike of saying ‘no’ as it is considered poor etiquette
  • Discussions can be prolonged due to the avoidance of declining or refusing
  • If disquiet is verbally or visibly displayed it is a sure sign that something is amiss
  • Good posture and positive body language is most beneficial in meetings; patience and politeness must be maintained throughout
  • Do not use excessive or overt body language
  • Use two hands, or support your right arm with your left, when passing on business cards, gifts, or when receiving an item
  • Respect, trust and satisfaction are displayed through a deeper bow

 

Cheonggyecheon

[Cooling off at Cheonggyecheon, a large recreation space in Seoul]

Personal Space

  • It is insulting for Koreans to be touched by someone with whom they are unfamiliar; don’t pat them on the back or hug them
  • Prolonged, direct eye contact can be inferred as a challenge and is seen as impolite, especially when dealing with others of a higher social standing
  • Keep your body within its own personal space; avoid extended or crossed legs and limit arm movements when explaining something so as to evade others’ personal space
  • If calling someone over to you do not point with your index finger, instead use your hand palm down in a claw movement
  • In cities (especially Seoul) pushing, shoving and touching are regular occurrences – don’t be offended by the lack of apologies
  • Friends, of both sexes, will often walk arm in arm together, especially teenagers and the younger generations

Gift Giving Etiquette

  • Koreans are generous people and enjoy giving gifts
  • Accept the gift with both hands – but never open the gift immediately, wait until the giver is absent
  • Return the favour and offer something of a similar value. Koreans enjoy Western gifts and items so be prepared before leaving home
  • If giving gifts be sure to wrap and present them in an attractive way. Avoid using dark wrapping paper, especially red, instead choose bright yellow/green
  • If invited to a Korean home always take the hostess a gift; chocolates, sweets, cakes or flowers but preferably not alcohol
  • Gifts are often given at the first business meeting and the host should present his first. To reciprocate, give good quality alcohol such as scotch, or desk accessories
  • Do not give overly expensive gifts as Koreans feel indebted to give as they receive
  • Avoid gifts such as knives, scissors, sets of four, and red writing (these are seen as ‘cutting ties’ and signifying death respectively)

Dining & Food

  • Always wait to be seated by your host. If given the seat of honour (looking at the front door) it is polite to demonstrate a slight objection
  • Elders are served first and begin the dining process
  • Food and dining are important parts of Korean culture and are used to build relationships. Be sociable and work at shaping good associations for pleasure and business as they are interlinked
  • Don’t pour your own drink, although it is considered good manners to pour another’s. Women often pour for men but not for other women. Rather than refuse more drink (remember, Koreans don’t like outright refusal) simply leave your glass part full, as opposed to empty
  • Do not tip if you see a ‘no tipping’ sign
  • There are often prolonged periods of silence during Korean meals – socialising can happen once everyone has feasted
  • Don’t forget to pass and receive food with two hands or with just your right if it is supported by your left
  • When it comes to settling the bill, the invitee may offer to pay but the host will generally pay for everyone.
  • If you are invited to continue after dinner with drinks or a party, don’t refuse this invitation.
  • On occasion you may be asked to sing a solo after dinner. Try not to refuse this request, instead sing with enthusiasm and spirit
  • Do not point with your chopsticks, or leave them sticking out of your bowl
  • The national drink of Korea is ‘Soju’, a clear vodka-like drink that is generally 18-25% alcohol

Visiting a home

  • Always remove your shoes before entering a Korean home (in recent years there has been an increase in Western culture and this may not always be the case – follow the lead of your host if unsure)
  • It is possible to arrive up to thirty minutes late without causing offence but punctuality is highly respected
  • Remember, never pour your own drink. The host will do this in your presence
  • Being invited into a Korean’s home is considered an honour (especially if it is for a meal) so it is essential to treat it as such. Be polite, respectful and observe their customs
  • Bring a gift to reciprocate your host’s kindness
  • Once the party is over you will usually be escorted to your car or the gate by the host. This is a sign of respect

Taboos in South Korean Culture

  • Do not wear your shoes in places of worship or peoples’ homes
  • Do not put your feet on furniture
  • Do not eat or drink in public places while walking
  • Do not place your thumb between your middle and index finger while making a fist as this an obscene gesture
  • Do not use red ink. This is a symbol of death and is reserved only for writing the names of the deceased. It is considered unlucky and suggests you wish death to the recipient
  • Do not use the number four if at all possible – if giving gifts, do not give four of something. It is considered unlucky due to the similarity between the Korean word for death and the pronunciation of the word ‘four’
  • Do not stand too close to people you are meeting for the first time – keep an arms length between you

 

religion business southkorea

[Offerings to the ancestors prior to the opening of a new complex. South Korea blends business with spirituality seemlessly]

 

BUSINESS CULTURE, ETIQUETTE AND PROTOCOL IN SOUTH KOREA

If you are considering doing business in South Korea, or with a South Korean, it is essential to understand their culture and business etiquette to maximise your potential and avoid any unnecessary awkwardness.

Korean culture is profoundly influenced by Confucian principles and this pervades not only personal lives, but also business. Confucianism supports group harmony, respect for elders and authority, the importance of family, friendship and ancestors, and also, tradition. Kibun (equivalent to face, or honour) is highly significant to Koreans and they will always attempt to maintain their Kibun, or personal dignity. Confrontation is to be avoided at all cost as once Kibun is lost it cannot be regained.

In South Korea, good relationships are crucial to success both in personal and business circles, and these are assimilated within the business world. Korean’s make friends first, and clients second. To make the most of your business acumen you must also appear trustworthy, honourable and respectable in a social and business setting.

Korean business is founded upon relationships; even large corporations are often family managed with members still acting in executive positions. The Confucian principles regarding respect for age, family, rank and tradition have ensured the continuance of this system. There have been recent calls for reforms, due to economic downturns, in Korea but this will take time due to the entrenched systems in place.

Alongside the formal power structures in place within a company one must learn to recognise, and assess, the informal structures which may be based on long-standing family ties, personal relationships and allegiances.  Insight into these practises will ensure a greater comprehension of Korean business etiquette.

What to wear?

  • Dress is conventional and conservative for both women and men
  • Dark suits, white shirt and tie are accepted as the norm for men
  • Suits, dresses, or blouse and skirt are acknowledged for women. Trousers are not generally worn for business
  • Women should avoid sleeveless, tight-fitting garments
  • Colours should be understated and traditional
  • Good quality accessories are accepted
  • Be aware that winter can be very cold, and summer very hot, in South Korea

Titles

  • As discussed previously, Koreans have three names; they are used in order of surname, generation name, and then given name.
  • If unsure address people as Mr_____ (surname) or surname ______ and then their title (teacher, professor, etc)
  • Generally, Koreans will offer you their name, which may be a westernised version of their Korean name

Business cards

  • Business cards are considered important and ritualistic in Korea
  • It is advisable to have one side printed in English and the other in Korean
  • Give and receive cards with both hands, with the Korean side uppermost for ease of reading
  • Take time to read and examine the cards you are given – it is respectful
  • Place cards in a holder to keep them safe and show you are treating them well
  • Never write on or mark the cards you are given

Meetings

  • Organise your meeting ahead of time, giving plenty of notice
  • Arrive punctually and be prepared
  • The most senior Korean will enter and be seated first
  • As Koreans live and conduct business within a Confucian framework, initial meetings are often used in an introductory fashion and business may be instigated later
  • Do not show impatience at this stage as these pleasantries are a way of getting to know you
  • Only remove your jacket once the senior Korean does
  • Choose delegates who are on par with their Korean counterparts – this shows respect and knowledge
  • Exchange business cards in a respectful manner after the initial introductions
  • Ask open ended questions that do not require a yes or no answer as Koreans dislike refusals

Negotiating

  • Allow the senior Korean to instigate business discussions
  • Phrase questions in a manner that allows for discussion (Ask ‘When can we expect delivery?’ And not, ‘Will delivery be within two weeks?’)
  • Avoid using an outright ‘No’ in response to questions
  • Be aware of others’ Kibun – do not force an issue if you sense reluctance as you may harm you own dignity and lose their respect
  • Always show respect for senior colleagues and management
  • There are often times of silence during meetings, try not to break these as they are moments of contemplation and show consideration for others
  • Avoid a hard sell and forceful negotiations – remember Kibun

Management

  • Korean business and personal lives are based upon strict hierarchical structures
  • Confucianism supports this structure within the family and workplace
  • Older and senior delegates should be deferred to at all times
  • ‘Sonsaengnim’ means “respected person” and is frequently used when addressing someone of a higher position
  • In South Korea managers take a paternalistic role with employees and may be familiar with staff in a personal manner
  • This allows for a mutual respect and understanding so don’t be put off if asked questions of a personal nature

Source : http://www.commisceo-global.com/country-guides/south-korea-guide